According to some viewpoints, the distributions of social determinants are shaped by public policies that reflect the influence of prevailing political ideologies of those governing a jurisdiction. This unequal distribution of health-damaging experiences is not in any sense a ‘natural’ phenomenon but is the result of a toxic combination of poor social policies, unfair economic arrangements , and bad politics. There is no single definition of the social determinants of health, but social determinants of indigenous health pdf are commonalities, and many governmental and non-governmental organizations recognize that there are social factors which impact the health of individuals. In Canada, these social determinants of health have gained wide usage.
These SDOH are clearly related to health outcomes, are closely tied to public policy, and are clearly understandable by the public. The quality and equitable distribution of these social determinants in Canada and the USA are clearly well below the standards seen in other developed nations. The WHO later developed a Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which in 2008 published a report entitled “Closing the Gap in a Generation”. This report identified two broad areas of social determinants of health that needed to be addressed. The 2011 World Conference on Social Determinants of Health brought together delegations from 125 member states and resulted in the Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health. This declaration involved an affirmation that health inequities are unacceptable, and noted that these inequities arise from the societal conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including early childhood development, education, economic status, employment and decent work, housing environment, and effective prevention and treatment of health problems. The United States Centers for Disease Control defines social determinants of health as “life-enhancing resources, such as food supply, housing, economic and social relationships, transportation, education, and health care, whose distribution across populations effectively determines length and quality of life”.
These include access to care and resources such as food, insurance coverage, income, housing, and transportation. Woolf states, “The degree to which social conditions affect health is illustrated by the association between education and mortality rates”. Based on the data collected, the social conditions such as education, income, and race were very much dependent on one another, but these social conditions also apply independent health influences. Even in the wealthiest countries, there are economic inequalities in health between the rich and the poor. As a result, there is an uneven distribution of wealth and influence both within and across national borders, leading to negative impacts on the social determinants of health.
International labor migration and the policies that attempt to regulate it can also impact the health of only those that migrate but their family members who stay behind. However, there is substantial variation in health care systems and coverage from country to country. The Commission also calls for government action on such things as access to clean water and safe, equitable working conditions, and it notes that dangerous working conditions exist even in some wealthy countries. Within this view, three frameworks have been developed to explain how social determinants influence health.