The shared garden areas can be site planning for cluster housing pdf source of conflict however. Cluster development often encounters planning objections. Hartshone in Richmond, and Dudley Square in Shreveport.
Garden Cities movement, it used principles of cluster development. Brunswick Hill in South Brunswick. Reston and American Fairfax County. Currently cluster development is applied all over the United States. There is particularly a strong push for it in the Midwestern states that have had significant problems with large lot suburban sprawl, such as Minnesota, Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
It is a practice of Low Impact Development that groups residential properties in a proposed subdivision closer together in order to utilize the rest of the land for open space, recreation or agriculture. PUD contains a mix of residential, commercial, industrial, or other uses, whereas the cluster development primarily focuses on residential area. Thanks to there being more porous ground coverings and fewer impervious surfaces such as asphalt and concrete, the risk of flooding and erosion from stormwater is reduced. Economical benefits of cluster development can include there being less infrastructure to build— fewer roads, sewers, and utility lines.
The higher density of the clusters of housing also tends to mean more efficiency for services such as public transit, and can also promote increased bicycle usage and the encouragement of pedestrians. Following World War II, migration from the cities to suburbs became a dominant trend in America. Communities then developed zoning regulations to limit the number of units and density allowed on a site. Though this zoning protected land for communities and to an extent preserved land from development, it was what ultimately led to the suburban sprawl as we know it today. It is this zoning that cluster development attempts to amend, and is the primary issue it faces. Most municipalities have established zoning which restricts developers, planning boards and communities to use only this conventional subdivision development.
Thus, the practice of traditional development is difficult to change because of the set standard, familiarly of the procedure, and the fear of undertaking something new. This ordinance is not difficult to implement administratively, but politically, it is problematic because of conservative resistance. People’s perception of personal space has a large part to do with this resistance. Convincing people to accept small lot sizes and higher density living remains one of the biggest obstacles of cluster development.
This obstacle can be mostly overcome with proper site design, which grants homes unobstructed views and effective private space. As well as educating people about the benefits of having better community and open space can serve as encouragement to change perceptions. An additional obstacle to cluster development is the difficulty for creating small lot sizes when no municipal sewer system is in place. The amount of land needed is in proportion to the size of the septic system and the soil conditions, which must allow for the percolation of wastewater safely into the ground. In areas where well water is used, additional lot area may be required to sufficiently separate the well from the leach field. In addition, providing a package WWTP reduces the diameter and depth of collection sewer lines for the cluster, thus reducing the overall cost of infrastructure.
The final primary issue with cluster development is the issue of dealing with open, recreational, and agricultural space. These areas serve as benefits in many respects but are also issues that are required to be dealt with. The maintenance of open and recreational space requires the formation of home owners associations that necessitate fees for taxes, insurance and general upkeep. This would not be necessary under a typical subdivision, but people would have their own maintenance expenses. As to agriculture: people enjoying living next to it until there is a need to apply fertilizer or pesticides. This fact cannot be avoided, but through proper use of cluster development, there can be wider gaps and barriers between agricultural land and residential properties, which would limit exposure to unwanted byproducts. The model ordinance for cluster development is section 4.