Encyclopedia of science and technology pdf

This article is about the use and knowledge of techniques and processes for producing goods and services. Such turbines encyclopedia of science and technology pdf most of the electricity used today.

Electricity consumption and living standards are highly correlated. Electrification is believed to be the most important engineering achievement of the 20th century. The use of the term “technology” has changed significantly over the last 200 years. English, which usually translates both terms as “technology. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that “technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them. Bain’s definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists.

Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. The word “technology” can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. When combined with another term, such as “medical technology” or “space technology,” it refers to the state of the respective field’s knowledge and tools.

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields.

The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. United States that technology was simply “applied science” and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of natureĀ  This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research. The issue remains contentious, though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research. Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history.

Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. 380 ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts. Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. Nile boat dating to the 8th millennium BCE. Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 BCE with most experts putting it closer to 4000 BCE. More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia.