Communication system by kennedy pdf

Its physical structure is an emergent property of the individual entities. Bacterial colonies communicate with each other, coordinating, for example, an attack, or the production of slime using lateral communication based on chemical messengers so that as a group they can detect how many colleagues there are, and if they are likely to overwhelm a communication system by kennedy pdf. Mexican wave as a three-dimensional circulating wave, which relays contraction signals to the whole heart.

When conditions change, the amoeba all concentrate and form a slug- like a creature which can actually move off somewhere else before forming a spore body and releasing millions of individual spores. The positions of human cells, and which type of cell is mediated by lateral communication. It is argued that communities communicate and store collective knowledge through lateral communication and that it is an essential ingredient to make hierarchies work, by compensating for errors in hierarchies’ information flows. The term lateral communication can be used interchangeably with horizontal communication.

According to research done by John E. Spillan, Mary Mino, and M. Specifically, lateral communication occurs among coworkers, during staff meetings and informational presentations, throughout shift changes, and among employees regardless of peer types. Communicating effectively laterally involves the exchange of information between and among all organizational members.

While we may perceive that organizational information flows vertically or from top to bottom, in reality, information moves laterally. In other words, as information directives are communicated from an upper to a lower position on the hierarchy, peers at each hierarchical level should quickly interpret and communicate these directives between and among peers at similar hierarchical levels. A mechanistic or hierarchical organizational structure emphasizes specialization in position. Examples include healthcare and governmental organizations where information is communicated based on a chain of command.