Its historical roots span cultures, civilizations, and millennia. Modern metalworking processes, though diverse and specialized, can be categorized as forming, cutting, or joining processes. Copper was hammered until brittle coldworking glass without machines pdf heated so it could be worked some more.
This technology is dated to about 4000-5000 BCE. Not all metal required fire to obtain it or work it. In other words, gold, as rare as it is, is sometimes found in nature as the metal that it is. These ores were mined wherever they were recognized.
Ancient civilisations knew of seven metals. The oxidation potential is important because it is one indicator of how tightly bound to the ore the metal is likely to be. As can be seen, iron is significantly higher than the other six metals while gold is dramatically lower than the six above it. Gold’s low oxidation is one of the main reasons that gold is found in nuggets. These nuggets are relatively pure gold and are workable as they are found. Copper ore, being relatively abundant, and tin ore became the next important players in the story of metalworking. Using heat to smelt copper from ore, a great deal of copper was produced.